Windows File Extensions

on May 24, 2010 0 comments
MPEG-1/2 Audio Layer 3 (.mp3)

Ogg Vorbis (.ogg)

ASF Audio (.asf,.wma)

Wave form audio format (.wav)

RealAudio (.ra,.rm)

Free Lossless Audio codec(.flac)

Advanced Audio coding (.aac)

MPEG-4 advanced audio coding (.m4a,.mp4)

Musepack (.mpc)


3GP Music (.3gp)

AC3 Audio File (.ac3)

Adaptive Multi-Rate (.amr)

Adaptive Multi-Rate WB (.awb)

Sun Mircrosystem’s audio format (.au,.snd)

Audio Interchange File Format (.aiff)

Purevoice File (.qcp)

AMIGA 8bit sound file (.8svx)

PSION sound file (.prc)

IRCAM sound file (.sf)

soundTool (.sndt)

PSION 8bit sound file (.wve)

soundtracker module (.mod)

FastTracker II module (.xm)

ImpulseTracker module (.it)

ScreamTracker module (.s3m)

Ringtone (Monophonic/Polyphonic)

MIDI-0 (.mid,.midi)

SP-MIDI (.mid,.midi)

Midi Karaoke (.kar)

MMF/SMAF-1 (.mmf,.smaf)

Qualcomm CMX 3.0 (.pmd)

Motorola Ringtone (.mot)

Sagem Ringtone (.sagem)

Sagem Ringtone (.sagem21)

Ericsson emelody (.emy)

iMelody Ringtone Format (.imv)

Ringtones text transfer language (.rttl,.rtx)

Nokia phone Ring Tone (.nokia,.ott)

Nokia Phone Ring Tone (.noktxt)


Joint photographic experts group (.jfif,.jif,.jpe,.jpeg,.jpg)

Windows bitmap (.bmp)

Graphics interchange format (.gif)

Truevision TGA (.tga)

Portable network graphics (.pgm)

AVS X image (.avs)

Kodak Cineon Image Format (.cin)

ZSoft IBM PC multi-page paintbrush (.dcx)

Windows device independent bitmap (.dib)

SMPTE digital moving picture exchange (.dpx)

Microsoft icon (.ico)

Magick image file format (.miff)

On-the-air-Bitmap (.otb)

Palm pixmap (.palm)

Portable bitmap format black/white (.pbm)

Xv’s Visual Schnauzer thumbnail (.p7)

Photo CD (.pcd)

Zsoft IBM PC Paintbrush file (.pcx)

Apple Mcintosh QuickDraw (.pict)

Portable Pixmap format - color (.ppm)

Adobe Photoshop bitmap file (.psd)

Photo CD - sRGB color (.pcds)

Irix RGB image (.sgi)

SUN Raster Image (.ras,.sun)

X Windows system bitmap black/white (.xbm)

X Windows system pixmap (.xpm)

CCIR 601 4:1:1 (.yuv)

Vector Document

Windows Metafile (.wmf)

Scalable Vector Graphics (.svg)

Magick Vector Graphics (.mvg)

AutoCAD Interchange Format (.dxf)

Enhanced Metafile (.emf)

Encapsulated Postscript (.eps)

Computer Graphics Metafile (.cgm)

OS/w Metafile (.met)

OpenOffice 2.0 Draw Document (.odg)

OpenOffice 2.0 Draw Template (.otg)

OpenOffice 1.0 Draw Document (.sxd)

OpenOffice 1.0 Draw Template (.std)

Text Document:

Text files (.txt)

Url address (web) (.url)

HyperTextMarkup Language (.htm,.html)

XHTML (.xhtml)

Rich Text Format/MS Word (.rtf)

Portable Document Format (.pdf)

Adobe Postscript (.ps)

Microsoft Word (.doc)

MS Word template (.dot)

OpenOffice 2.0 Text Document (.odt)

OpenOffice 2.0 Text Template (.ott)

OpenOffice 1.0 Text Document (.sxw)

OpenOffice 1.0 Text Template (.stw)

AportisDoc Palm DB (.pdb)

Starwriter vorlage/Template (.vor)

PocketWord (.psw)

Wordperfect 6 (.wpd)

MS Word 2003 XML (.xml)


Data Interchange Format (.dif)

dBASE (.dbf)

Microsoft Excel (.xls)

MS Excel Vorlage/Template (.xlt)

Pocket Excel (.pxl)

SYLK (.slk)

Lotus 1-2-3 (.123,.wk1)

StarCalc (.sdc)

StarCalc Template (.vor)

OpenOffice 2.0 Spreadsheet (.ods)

OpenOffice 2.0 Calc template (.ots)

OpenOffice 1.0 spreadsheet (.sxc)

OpenOffice 1.0 calc template (.stc)


MathML (.mml)

StarMath (.smf)

OpenOffice 2.0 Math (.odf)

OpenOffice 1.0 Math (.sxm)

Microsoft Powerpoint (.ppt)

Microsoft Powerpoint Template (.pot)

StarImpress 5.0 (.sdd)

StarImpress 5.0 Template (.vor)

StarImpress 4.0 (.sdd)

StarImpress 4.0 Template (.vor)

OpenOffice 2.0 Impress (.odp)

OpenOffice 2.0 Impress Template (.otp)

OpenOffice 1.0 Impress (.sxi)

OpenOffice 1.0 Impress Template (.sti)

Compressed archives

Data compression (.zip)

7Z Archive (.7z)

LHA Archive (.lha,.lzh)

Roshal ArchiveArchive (.rar)

Tape ARchive (.tar)

TAR Gzip Compressed archive (.gz)

BZ2 compressed archive (.bza)

Deepfreezer YZ1 archive (.yz1)


Windows Media Video (.wmv)

3GP/3G2 Video (.3gp)

Audio Video Interleave (.avi)

Matroska (.mkv)

Apple Quicktime (.mov)

Motion Picture Expert Group (.pg)

Ogg vorbis Compressed video (.ogm)

MPEG-4 (.mp4)

Flash Video (.flv)

DVD Video Object (.vob)

FLIC Animation (.fli)

Digital Video (.dv)

ASF Video (.asf)

Google Video File (.gvi)


Microsoft Access DataBase (.mdb)

99 Windows XP Command prompt Commands

Here is a list of commands that you can run off from the Run Command prompt in XP:

Go to Start Menu > Run? and type in the command to run

Application = Command
Accessibility Controls = access.cpl
Add Hardware Wizard = hdwwiz.cpl
Add/Remove Programs = appwiz.cpl
Administrative Tools = control admintools
Automatic Updates = wuaucpl.cpl
Bluetooth Transfer Wizard = fsquirt
Calculator = calc
Certificate Manager = certmgr.msc
Character Map = charmap
Check Disk Utility = chkdsk
Clipboard Viewer = clipbrd
Command Prompt = cmd
Component Services = dcomcnfg
Computer Management = compmgmt.msc
Date and Time Properties = timedate.cpl
DDE Shares = ddeshare
Device Manager = devmgmt.msc
Direct X Control Panel (If Installed)* = directx.cpl
Direct X Troubleshooter = dxdiag
Disk Cleanup Utility = cleanmgr
Disk Defragment = dfrg.msc
Disk Management = diskmgmt.msc
Disk Partition Manager = diskpart
Display Properties = control desktop/desk.cpl
Dr. Watson System Troubleshooting Utility = drwtsn32
Driver Verifier Utility = verifier
Event Viewer = eventvwr.msc
File Signature Verification Tool = sigverif
Findfast = findfast.cpl
Folders Properties = control folders
Fonts = control fonts
Fonts Folder = fonts
Free Cell Card Game = freecell
Game Controllers = joy.cpl
Group Policy Editor (XP Prof) = gpedit.msc
Hearts Card Game = mshearts
Iexpress Wizard = iexpress
Indexing Service = ciadv.msc
Internet Properties = inetcpl.cpl
IP Configuration = ipconfig
Java Control Panel (If Installed) = jpicpl32.cpl
Java Application Cache Viewer (If Installed) = javaws
Keyboard Properties = control keyboard
Local Security Settings = secpol.msc
Local Users and Groups = lusrmgr.msc
Logs You Out Of Windows = logoff
Mcft Chat = winchat
Minesweeper Game = winmine
Mouse Properties = control mouse
Mouse Properties = main.cpl
Network Connections = control netconnections
Network Connections = ncpa.cpl
Network Setup Wizard = netsetup.cpl
Notepad = notepad
Nview Desktop Manager (If Installed) = nvtuicpl.cpl
Object Packager = packager
ODBC Data Source Administrator = odbccp32.cpl
On Screen Keyboard = osk
Opens AC3 Filter (If Installed) = ac3filter.cpl
Password Properties = password.cpl
Performance Monitor = perfmon.msc
Performance Monitor = perfmon
Phone and Modem Options = telephon.cpl
Power Configuration = powercfg.cpl
Printers and Faxes = control printers
Printers Folder = printers
Private Character Editor = eudcedit
Quicktime (If Installed) = QuickTime.cpl
Regional Settings = intl.cpl
Registry Editor = regedit
Registry Editor = regedit32
Remote Desktop = mstsc
Removable Storage = ntmsmgr.msc
Removable Storage Operator Requests = ntmsoprq.msc
Resultant Set of Policy (XP Prof) = rsop.msc
Scanners and Cameras = sticpl.cpl
Scheduled Tasks = control schedtasks
Security Center = wscui.cpl
Services = services.msc
Shared Folders = fsmgmt.msc
Shuts Down Windows = shutdown
Sounds and Audio = mmsys.cpl
Spider Solitare Card Game = spider
SQL Client Configuration = cliconfg
System Configuration Editor = sysedit
System Configuration Utility = msconfig
System File Checker Utility = sfc
System Properties = sysdm.cpl
Task Manager = taskmgr
Telnet Client = telnet
User Account Management = nusrmgr.cpl
Utility Manager = utilman
Windows Firewall = firewall.cpl
Windows Magnifier = magnify
Windows Management Infrastructure = wmimgmt.msc
Windows System Security Tool = syskey
Windows Update Launches = wupdmgr
Windows XP Tour Wizard = tourstart
Wordpad = write

How to change name of START Menu in Windows XP

Ever wondered how would it be if the start menu of Windows Xp has your name instead of START. There is a small registery hack to make this tweak.
To change name of START menu :
  1. Copy EXPLORER.EXE in your Windows directory ( The direectory is found in the drive where you have installed youe XP ) to another directory
    Start a hex editor (use resource hacker).Navigate here to download Resource Hacker.
    go to “string table” & to “37″ click on 1033
    you will see “start” written on the next table
    Now just replace the Start letters with any of your choice (up to 5 characters only IMPORTANT).
  3. Compile the script & save it.
  4. Rename this file as any name say explorer1.exe
    copy it in your windows directory.
Open registry editor navigate to HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Winlogon double click “shell” &
enter name of your new explorer(explorer1 )in this case.
restart to see changes.

NOTE: Remember to make up a back up copy of your registery before making this hack as there is a chance of crashing of your system.

If the crash occurs you can recover your system. To do this
  • Open the TASK-MANAGER and in new task enter “regedit”
  • In the resultant window undo the changes which we have made before ( i.e., renaming explorer1 to explorer again)
So Go ahead and surprise all your friends with your name as the start menu button.

How to hide hard drives in Windows XP


If you have sensitive or important data stored on a particular disk drive that you don’t want anyone to see, a great way to hide it is to remove the drive letter assigned to a particular mounted volume. With Windows XP, you can achieve this easily using nothing more than the Command Prompt. Here's how:

- Click Start -> Run (This brings up the Run dialog box)
- Type cmd and press Enter (This brings up the Windows Command Prompt)
- Type diskpart in the command prompt and press Enter (This launches the Diskpart utility within the Command Prompt window)
- Now type list volume (This displays a list of all mounted volumes on your computer and their associated drive letters)

- Using the above picture as reference, if, for example, you would like to hide drive E, type select volume 6- Now type remove letter E (Note: This sometime requires a reboot)
Diskpart will now remove the drive letter. The drive will no longer be available via Windows Explorer or My Computer.

Don’t worry though, your data remains safe!

Now, should you want to unhide the drive and make it accessible again, just repeat the above process. But instead of typing remove letter E, type assign letter E.

How to display your web site logo on the address bar

First, you have to create a logo for your site; a very tiny logo to be specific. The size of the logo should be 16x16 pixels and it should be saved as a Windows icon file (logo.ico for example).

Once you have an icon file with your logo, you're ready to take the final step. Following methods will work in Explorer 5.x and higher without having any negative effects on other browsers.

Method 1
This is the easiest method to implement and it will work regardless of the particular page on your site users choose to add to their favorites list. Don't worry if you don't have access to your web site root; take a look at the next method.
If you have access to the root of your web site, simply save your icon file as "favicon.ico" there. For example, if your web site is "", your icon file should be available at "". The web browser will look for favicon.ico whenever your site is added to the favorites list and if it is found at the root of your web site, the icon will appear next to the link to your site.
Method 2

         If you don't have access to the root of your web site, you have to add the following tag to your  web           page so that the browser will know where to look for your icon. Unlike before, this time you can save            the icon under any name ending with ".ico" We'll use the name "logo.ico" and assume that your web
         site is  under the directory "~your_directory".
         Below tag should be inserted in-between head tag of your HTML page.

         By the way, you can specify multiple logos for multiple pages using the second method. Simply save your icons using unique names, such as logo1.ico, logo2.ico, logo3.ico for example, and replace "logo.ico" in the above HTML code with the name of the icon you want to use for any particular page.

Change the icon for Drives in PC

on May 20, 2010 0 comments

  1. Copy the above code in notepad and Save as "autorun.inf" and place in any drive (for example: place in C:\ drive).
  2. Now u need an icon file (file format: .ico)
  3. Download an icon file and rename it as "sample.ico" and place in that drive.
  4. Ensure that autorun.inf and sample.ico files are present in the drive all time (u may also hide them).
  5. That's it.. the drive will show the new icon when u RESTART the computer.
for icons visit:


Place the background image in USB Pendrive

iconarea_image= \sample.jpg;iconarea_text=0x00FFFFFF

  1. Copy the above code in notepad and saveas "desktop.ini" and place in Pendrive.
  2. Paste ur image file in the Pendrive and rename it as sample.jpg
  3. Ensure that desktop.ini and sample.jpg files are present in the Pendrive all time (u may also hide them).
  4. Thats it.. the drive will show the Background Image when u insert it the next time.

Change the icon for USB Pendrive

Lable =(name)

  1. copy the above code in notepad and Save as "autorun.inf" and place in Pendrive.
  2. now u need an icon file (file format: .ico)
  3. download an icon file and rename it as "usb_icon.ico" and place in Pendrive.
  4. Ensure that autorun.inf and usb_icon.ico files are present in the Pendrive all time (u may also hide them).
  5. Thats it.. the drive will show the new icon when u insert it the next time.

Hide 'User Accounts' from users

Go to Start/Run, and type:
Open the path
User Config > Admin Templates > Control Panel
doubleclick "Hide specified Control Panel applets"
put a dot in 'enabled', then click 'Show"
click Add button,
type "nusrmgt.cpl" into the add box

Get rid of Windows Messenger

-Computer Configuration
-Administrative Templates
-Windows Components
-Windows Messenger 
 Here you can enable
"Do not allow Windows Messenger to be run"
"Do not automatically start Windows Messenger initially"

Make Use Of Your Windows Key

The Windows logo key, located in the bottom row of most computer keyboards is a little-used treasure. Don't' ignore it. It is the shortcut anchor for the following commands:

Windows: Display the Start menu
Windows + D: Minimize or restore all windows
Windows + E: Display Windows Explorer
Windows + F: Display Search for files
Windows + Ctrl + F: Display Search for computer
Windows + F1: Display Help and Support Center
Windows + R: Display Run dialog box
Windows + break: Display System Properties dialog box
Windows + shift + M: Undo minimize all windows
Windows + L: Lock the workstation
Windows + U: Open Utility Manager
Windows + Q: Quick switching of users (Powertoys only)
Windows + Q: Hold Windows Key, then tap Q to scroll thru the different users on your PC

Ping Command Options

 Here are all of the ping options:
example .. In DOS .. c:>ping -t
-t Ping the specifed host until interrupted
-a Resolve addresses to hostnames
-n count Number of echo requests to send
-l size Send buffer size
-f Set Don't Fragment flag in packet
-i TTL Time To Live
 -v TOS Type Of Service
-r count Record route for count hops
-s count Timestamp for count hops
-j host-list Loose source route along host-list
-k host-list Strict source route along host-list
-w timeout Timeout in milliseconds to wait for each reply
Experiment to see how helpful these can be!

Remove shortcut arrow from desktop icons

Here's how you can remove those shortcut arrows from your desktop icons in Windows XP.
1. Start regedit.
2. Navigate to HKEY_CLASSES_ROOTlnkfile
3. Delete the IsShortcut registry value.
You may need to restart Windows XP.

20 things you didn't know about Windows XP

You've read the reviews and digested the key feature enhancements and operational changes. Now it's time to delve a bit deeper and uncover some of Windows XP's secrets.

1. It boasts how long it can stay up. Whereas previous versions of Windows were coy about how long they went between boots, XP is positively proud of its stamina. Go to the Command Prompt in the Accessories menu from the All Programs start button option, and then type 'systeminfo'. The computer will produce a lot of useful info, including the uptime. If you want to keep these, type 'systeminfo > info.txt'. This creates a file called info.txt you can look at later with Notepad. (Professional Edition only).
2. You can delete files immediately, without having them move to the Recycle Bin first. Go to the Start menu, select Run... and type 'gpedit.msc'; then select User Configuration, Administrative Templates, Windows Components, Windows Explorer and find the Do not move deleted files to the Recycle Bin setting. Set it. Poking around in gpedit will reveal a great many interface and system options, but take care -- some may stop your computer behaving as you wish. (Professional Edition only).
3. You can lock your XP workstation with two clicks of the mouse. Create a new shortcut on your desktop using a right mouse click, and enter 'rundll32.exe user32.dll,LockWorkStation' in the location field. Give the shortcut a name you like. That's it -- just double click on it and your computer will be locked. And if that's not easy enough, Windows key + L will do the same.
4. XP hides some system software you might want to remove, such as Windows Messenger, but you can tickle it and make it disgorge everything. Using Notepad or Edit, edit the text file /windows/inf/sysoc.inf, search for the word 'hide' and remove it. You can then go to the Add or Remove Programs in the Control Panel, select Add/Remove Windows Components and there will be your prey, exposed and vulnerable.
5. For those skilled in the art of DOS batch files, XP has a number of interesting new commands. These include 'eventcreate' and 'eventtriggers' for creating and watching system events, 'typeperf' for monitoring performance of various subsystems, and 'schtasks' for handling scheduled tasks. As usual, typing the command name followed by /? will give a list of options -- they're all far too baroque to go into here.
6. XP has IP version 6 support -- the next generation of IP. Unfortunately this is more than your ISP has, so you can only experiment with this on your LAN. Type 'ipv6 install' into Run... (it's OK, it won't ruin your existing network setup) and then 'ipv6 /?' at the command line to find out more. If you don't know what IPv6 is, don't worry and don't bother.
7. You can at last get rid of tasks on the computer from the command line by using 'taskkill /pid' and the task number, or just 'tskill' and the process number. Find that out by typing 'tasklist', which will also tell you a lot about what's going on in your system.
8. XP will treat Zip files like folders, which is nice if you've got a fast machine. On slower machines, you can make XP leave zip files well alone by typing 'regsvr32 /u zipfldr.dll' at the command line. If you change your mind later, you can put things back as they were by typing 'regsvr32 zipfldr.dll'.
9. XP has ClearType -- Microsoft's anti-aliasing font display technology -- but doesn't have it enabled by default. It's well worth trying, especially if you were there for DOS and all those years of staring at a screen have given you the eyes of an astigmatic bat. To enable ClearType, right click on the desktop, select Properties, Appearance, Effects, select ClearType from the second drop-down menu and enable the selection. Expect best results on laptop displays. If you want to use ClearType on the Welcome login screen as well, set the registry entry HKEY_USERS/.DEFAULT/Control Panel/Desktop/FontSmoothingType to 2.
10. You can use Remote Assistance to help a friend who's using network address translation (NAT) on a home network, but not automatically. Get your pal to email you a Remote Assistance invitation and edit the file. Under the RCTICKET attribute will be a NAT IP address, like Replace this with your chum's real IP address -- they can find this out by going to -- and get them to make sure that they've got port 3389 open on their firewall and forwarded to the errant computer.
11. You can run a program as a different user without logging out and back in again. Right click the icon, select Run As... and enter the user name and password you want to use. This only applies for that run. The trick is particularly useful if you need to have administrative permissions to install a program, which many require. Note that you can have some fun by running programs multiple times on the same system as different users, but this can have unforeseen effects.
12. Windows XP can be very insistent about you checking for auto updates, registering a Passport, using Windows Messenger and so on. After a while, the nagging goes away, but if you feel you might slip the bonds of sanity before that point, run Regedit, go to HKEY_CURRENT_USER/Software/Microsoft/Windows/Current Version/Explorer/Advanced and create a DWORD value called EnableBalloonTips with a value of 0.
13. You can start up without needing to enter a user name or password. Select Run... from the start menu and type 'control userpasswords2', which will open the user accounts application. On the Users tab, clear the box for Users Must Enter A User Name And Password To Use This Computer, and click on OK. An Automatically Log On dialog box will appear; enter the user name and password for the account you want to use.
14. Internet Explorer 6 will automatically delete temporary files, but only if you tell it to. Start the browser, select Tools / Internet Options... and Advanced, go down to the Security area and check the box to Empty Temporary Internet Files folder when browser is closed.
15. XP comes with a free Network Activity Light, just in case you can't see the LEDs twinkle on your network card. Right click on My Network Places on the desktop, then select Properties. Right click on the description for your LAN or dial-up connection, select Properties, then check the Show icon in notification area when connected box. You'll now see a tiny network icon on the right of your task bar that glimmers nicely during network traffic.
16. The Start Menu can be leisurely when it decides to appear, but you can speed things along by changing the registry entry HKEY_CURRENT_USER/Control Panel/Desktop/MenuShowDelay from the default 400 to something a little snappier. Like 0.
17. You can rename loads of files at once in Windows Explorer. Highlight a set of files in a window, then right click on one and rename it. All the other files will be renamed to that name, with individual numbers in brackets to distinguish them. Also, in a folder you can arrange icons in alphabetised groups by View, Arrange Icon By... Show In Groups.
18. Windows Media Player will display the cover art for albums as it plays the tracks -- if it found the picture on the Internet when you copied the tracks from the CD. If it didn't, or if you have lots of pre-WMP music files, you can put your own copy of the cover art in the same directory as the tracks. Just call it folder.jpg and Windows Media Player will pick it up and display it.
19. Windows key + Break brings up the System Properties dialogue box; Windows key + D brings up the desktop; Windows key + Tab moves through the taskbar buttons.
20. The next release of Windows XP, codenamed Longhorn, is due out late next year or early 2003 and won't be much to write home about. The next big release is codenamed Blackcomb and will be out in 2003/2004.

Remove the Recycle Bin from the Desktop

If you don't use the Recycle Bin to store deleted files , you can get rid of its desktop icon all together.
Run Regedit and go to:

Click on the "Recycle Bin" string in the right hand pane. Hit Del, click OK.

How to Rename the Recycle Bin

To change the name of the Recycle Bin desktop icon, open Regedit and go to:

and change the name "Recycle Bin" to whatever you want (don't type any quotes).

Keyboard Shortcuts

When speed counts, the keyboard is still king. Almost all the actions and commands you can perform with a mouse you can perform faster using combinations of keys on your keyboard. These simple keyboard shortcuts can get you where you want to go faster than several clicks of a mouse. You'll work faster on spreadsheets and similar documents, too, because you won't lose your place switching back and forth between mouse and keys.

Here are some of the most useful keyboard shortcuts:

Copy. CTRL+C
Paste. CTRL+V
Undo. CTRL+Z
Delete. DELETE

Delete selected item permanently without placing the item in the Recycle Bin. SHIFT+DELETE
Copy selected item. CTRL while dragging an item
Create shortcut to selected item. CTRL+SHIFT while dragging an item
Rename selected item. F2
Move the insertion point to the beginning of the next word. CTRL+RIGHT ARROW
Move the insertion point to the beginning of the previous word. CTRL+LEFT ARROW
Move the insertion point to the beginning of the next paragraph. CTRL+DOWN ARROW
Move the insertion point to the beginning of the previous paragraph. CTRL+UP ARROW
Highlight a block of text. CTRL+SHIFT with any of the arrow keys
Select more than one item in a window or on the desktop, or select text within a document. SHIFT with any of the arrow keys
Select all. CTRL+A
Search for a file or folder. F3
View properties for the selected item. ALT+ENTER
Close the active item, or quit the active program. ALT+F4
Opens the shortcut menu for the active window. ALT+SPACEBAR
Close the active document in programs that allow you to have multiple documents open simultaneously. CTRL+F4
Switch between open items. ALT+TAB
Cycle through items in the order they were opened. ALT+ESC
Cycle through screen elements in a window or on the desktop. F6
Display the Address bar list in My Computer or Windows Explorer. F4
Display the shortcut menu for the selected item. SHIFT+F10
Display the System menu for the active window. ALT+SPACEBAR
Display the Start menu. CTRL+ESC
Display the corresponding menu. ALT+Underlined letter in a menu name
Carry out the corresponding command. Underlined letter in a command name on an open menu
Activate the menu bar in the active program. F10
Open the next menu to the right, or open a submenu. RIGHT ARROW
Open the next menu to the left, or close a submenu. LEFT ARROW
Refresh the active window. F5
View the folder one level up in My Computer or Windows Explorer. BACKSPACE
Cancel the current task. ESC
SHIFT when you insert a CD into the CD-ROM drive Prevent the CD from automatically playing.

Use these keyboard shortcuts for dialog boxes:

Move forward through tabs. CTRL+TAB
Move backward through tabs. CTRL+SHIFT+TAB
Move forward through options. TAB
Move backward through options. SHIFT+TAB
Carry out the corresponding command or select the corresponding option. ALT+Underlined letter
Carry out the command for the active option or button. ENTER
Select or clear the check box if the active option is a check box. SPACEBAR
Select a button if the active option is a group of option buttons. Arrow keys
Display Help. F1
Display the items in the active list. F4
Open a folder one level up if a folder is selected in the Save As or Open dialog box. BACKSPACE

If you have a Microsoft Natural Keyboard, or any other compatible keyboard that includes the Windows logo key and the Application key , you can use these keyboard shortcuts:

Display or hide the Start menu.
Display the System Properties dialog box. +BREAK
Show the desktop. +D
Minimize all windows. +M
Restores minimized windows. +Shift+M
Open My Computer. +E
Search for a file or folder. +F
Search for computers. CTRL+ +F
Display Windows Help. +F1
Lock your computer if you are connected to a network domain, or switch users if you are not connected to a network domain. + L
Open the Run dialog box. +R
Display the shortcut menu for the selected item.
Open Utility Manager. +U
Helpful accessibility keyboard shortcuts:

Switch FilterKeys on and off. Right SHIFT for eight seconds
Switch High Contrast on and off. Left ALT +left SHIFT +PRINT SCREEN
Switch MouseKeys on and off. Left ALT +left SHIFT +NUM LOCK
Switch StickyKeys on and off. SHIFT five times
Switch ToggleKeys on and off. NUM LOCK for five seconds
Open Utility Manager. +U

Keyboard shortcuts you can use with Windows Explorer:

Display the bottom of the active window. END
Display the top of the active window. HOME
Display all subfolders under the selected folder. NUM LOCK+ASTERISK on numeric keypad (*)
Display the contents of the selected folder. NUM LOCK+PLUS SIGN on numeric keypad (+)
Collapse the selected folder. NUM LOCK+MINUS SIGN on numeric keypad (-)
Collapse current selection if it's expanded, or select parent folder. LEFT ARROW
Display current selection if it's collapsed, or select first subfolder. RIGHT ARROW

Gmail – 45 Keyboard Shortcuts

on May 19, 2010 0 comments
Gmail keyboard shortcuts are a great way to increase your computing performance. These small combinations of keystrokes within Gmail can be a real productivity booster and help you avoid having to move your hand from keyboard to mouse as frequently.
Activating Gmail’s Keyboard Shortcuts
Before these shortcuts can be used you have to make sure that the Keyboard Shortcuts Setting for Gmail is set to “on” in Gmail Settings.

Gmail Top Level View Navigation Shortcuts

These combinations of keystrokes speed up navigating among top level views such as Inbox, Sent Mail, All Mail, Spam, Trash, Drafts, Contacts and Tasks.  All letters in the keystroke combinations are shown in lower case but are not case sensitive. An example: “g then i” means press the “g” key then the “i” key, one right after the other.
  • g then i –  Open the Inbox.
  • g then s –  Open Starred.
  • g then t –  Open Sent Mail.
  • g then d –   Open Drafts.
  • g then a –  Open All Mail.
  • g then c –  Open Contacts.
  • g then k –  Open Tasks.

Gmail Selection and Management Shortcuts

These combinations of keystrokes are used within a specific view such as Inbox or All Mail to assist with quickly managing messages and conversations.
  • * then a –    Select all conversations.
  • * then n –    Deselect all conversations.
  • * then r –    Select only read conversations.
  • * then u –    Select only unread conversations.
  • * then s –    Select only starred conversations.
  • * then t –    Select only unstarred conversations.
  • x — Select a specific conversation; puts a check in checkbox; works as a toggle.
  • s – Stars a specific conversation; works as a toggle.
  • . – Open the More Actions dropdown list; works as a toggle.
  • e — Archive a conversation from current View into the All Mail View.
  • l – Open the Labels dropdown list to allow you to apply a label to a conversation.
  • # — Move the selected conversation to the Trash.
  • + i — Mark selected conversations as read.
  • + u – Mark selected conversations as unread.

Gmail Message Navigation Shortcuts

These Gmail keyboard shortcuts are used for navigating within conversations lists or views. The small black arrow at the left of the conversation list indicates the current conversation focus.
  • u – Return to conversation list (View) from current conversation.
  • k – Move to newer conversation; location indicated by black arrow on left.
  • j – Move to older conversation; location indicated by black arrow on left.
  • or o –    Open selected conversation; black arrow indicates selection.
  • + or + o — Open a conversation in a new window; black arrow indicates selection.
  • p — Read previous message within a conversation.
  • n — Read next message within a conversation.
  • r – Reply to sender when a conversation is open.
  • + r — Open the reply in a new window.
  • a — Reply to all when a conversation is open.
  • + a — Open the reply to all in a new window.
  • f — Forward current conversation when a conversation is open.
  • + f — Open the forward current conversation in a new window.
  • + s — Save a new or edited conversation as a draft. Cursor must be in a text field.
  • [ -- Archive the current conversation and move to the previous one.
  • ] – Archive the current conversation and move to the next one.

Gmail General Top Level Shortcuts

  • c – Open a new message.
  • + c – Open a new message in a new window.
  • / — Move cursor to the entry box for Search Mail.
  • z – Undo previous action. Mainly used when typing and works as an “undelete”.
  • Esc – Remove the cursor from a search box or any input field.

30 Firefox Keyboard Shortcuts

Firefox is the second most popular web browser in the world and it continues to gain popularity and market share. With this rapid growth many users, especially new users, are not aware of the wide range of useful Firefox keyboard shortcuts available. These small combinations of keystrokes when used at the right time can be real productivity boosters. Here are 30 Firefox keyboard shortcuts to help simplify and speed up your daily browsing. Even Firefox veterans may find these useful.
Many of the shortcuts will be a combination of keystrokes. For example “Ctrl + C” means that you should hold down the Ctrl (control) key and press the letter “C”. Use the lowercase letters not uppercase, if using the shift key is need it will be indicated as “Shift”.

Page Navigation Shortcuts

These shortcuts allow you to navigate quickly around a web page, most with only a single keystroke.
  • Spacebar — Page down one full screen at a time
  • Shift – Spacebar — Page up one full screen at a time
  • Down Arrow – Scroll down
  • Page Down — Page down one full screen at a time
  • Up Arrow –  Scroll Up
  • Page Up — Page up one full screen at a time
  • End – Go to the Bottom (end) of the page
  • Home – Go to the Top of page

Pages, Tabs and Bookmarks

These useful shortcuts help you quickly perform different common tasks within Firefox, manage Tabs and access bookmarks.
  • F5 — Reload the current page
  • Alt + Home — Go to home page
  • Ctrl + L — Go to the Address bar
  • Ctrl + K — Go to the search box
  • Ctrl + = — Increase the text size, zoom in
  • Ctrl + - — Decrease the text size, zoom out
  • Ctrl + P — Print the current page
  • Ctrl + H — Opens the Browsing History in a column on the left
  • Ctrl + T — Open a new tab
  • Ctrl + W — Close current tab
  • Ctrl + Tab — rotate forward to the next tab
  • Ctrl + Shft + Tab — rotate back to the previous tab
  • Ctrl + 1-9 — Choose a number to jump to that specific tab
  • Ctrl + B — Open Bookmarks Column on Left
  • Ctrl + I — Close Bookmarks Column
  • Ctrl + D – Create a bookmark for the current page

Mouse Shortcuts

Here are six mouse-related shortcuts for when you already have your hand on the mouse. These shortcuts include the scroll wheel and utilize the clicking function (middle click) of the scroll wheel.
  • Shift – scroll down – Go to the previous page
  • Shift – scroll up – Go to the next page
  • Ctrl – scroll up — Decrease the text size, zoom out
  • Ctrl – scroll down — Increase text size, zoom in
  • Middle click on link — Open the link in a new tab
  • Middle click on a tab — Close the tab
Keystroke shortcuts have been around for many years and Firefox takes useful browser shortcuts to a new level. It may take a little adjusting to get used to using shortcuts but once you do they’ll become second nature for speeding up your web browsing.